Speakers Day Two

Prof Andrew Pollard Andrew J Pollard, FRCPCH PhD, is Professor of Paediatric Infection and Immunity at the University of Oxford, Director of the Oxford Vaccine Group in the University Department of Paediatrics, Fellow of St Cross College and Honorary Consultant Paediatrician at the Children’s Hospital, Oxford, UK. He chairs the UK’s NICE meningitis guidelines development committee. He obtained his medical degree at St Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical School, University of London in 1989 and trained in Paediatrics at Birmingham Children’s Hospital, UK, specialising in Paediatric Infectious Diseases at St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK and at British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. He obtained his PhD at St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK in 1999 studying immunity to Neisseria meningitidis in children and proceeded to work on anti-bacterial innate immune responses in children in Canada before returning to his current position at the University of Oxford, UK in 2001.

Current research activities include clinical trials of new and improved vaccines for children, invasive bacterial diseases in children in Nepal, studies of cellular and humoral immune responses to glycoconjugate vaccines, research on the genetic control of the human immune response and investigations on meningococcal host-pathogen interactions and development of a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. His publications include over 200 manuscripts and books on various topics in paediatrics, and infectious diseases.

Prof Pollard will be presenting NICE guideline on meningococcal disease and bacterial meningitis and bacterial meningitis in children, read the abstract here.

He will be joint chair for the session Future prevention of MenB and initiate the round-table discussion.

He will also be taking part in the Novartis Vaccines Satellite Session and the Wyeth Vaccines Satellite Debate.

Dr Paul Heath Dr Paul T Heath MB BS, FRACP, FRCPCH, is a Reader / Honorary Consultant in Paediatric Infectious Diseases at St George’s, University of London and Vaccine Institute in London. His training in paediatrics and infectious diseases was at the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford and St George’s Hospital, London.

His particular research interests are in the epidemiology of vaccine preventable diseases, in clinical vaccine trials, particularly in at-risk groups, and in perinatal infections. He sits on national committees concerned with meningitis, Group B streptococcus prevention, Pneumococcal and Hib infections, Hospital acquired infections and on immunisation policies in children. He is a Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, a member of the committee for Scientific Affairs and Awards of the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and a member of the steering committee of the international Brighton Collaboration.

Dr Heath will be presenting Management of neonatal meningitis, read the abstract here

Dr David InwaldDavid qualified from Cambridge University and trained in adult and paediatric medicine before completing his training in paediatric intensive care medicine at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. During this time he also completed his PhD in platelet physiology at the Institute of Child Health. He is currently a Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant in Paediatric Intensive Care at Imperial College, London. David’s research interests include the genetics of disease severity and susceptibility in sepsis, the pathophysiology of severe sepsis and clinical safety in children presenting with critical illness. He recently led the Paediatric Intensive Care Society sepsis audit, the results of which will be presented at this meeting.

Dr Inwald will be presenting What happens in childhood sepsis in the UK now? PICS sepsis audit, read the abstract here.

Dr Fauzia PaizeDr Paize has been in paediatric training for seven years. She has completed a two year fellowship investigating the haemodynamic response within the host to invasive meningococcal disease. Her research commenced in January 2007 with the University of Liverpool and centred on children in intensive care. She is one of a long line of Meningococcal Research Fellows, all of which have contributed significantly within the Liverpool Meningococcal Research Group to the care of children with meningococcal disease. The work that Dr Paize has completed had been investigating the microcirculation on meningococcal disease using a novel technique to paediatric research. It is the first time this part of the cardiovascular system has been studied in childhood sepsis. Dr Paize’s research interests are in novel methods of detecting sepsis in a paediatric and neonatal population and haemodynamic responses to sepsis in these groups.

Dr Paize will be presenting the microcirculation in meningococcal septicaemia, read the abstract here.

Prof Joe Carcillo Joseph Carcillo M.D. graduated from the George Washington University School of Medicine in 1982. He completed his residency training in Pediatrics (1985) and then in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (1987) at the National Children’s Medical Center, garnering research training in sepsis at the Naval Medical Research Institute and the National Institutes of Health. After a four year service in the National Health Service Corps, Dr. Carcillo returned to and has remained in Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh. Dr. Carcillo’s research career has been one of systematic translational investigation in the pathophysiology and treatment of pediatric sepsis, septic shock and multiple organ failure establishing the rationale for clear differences in the management of children compared to adult patients. Dr. Carcillo and his colleague’s work have demonstrated age-specific differences in the need for early recognition and treatment of shock in the emergency department, aggressive fluid resuscitation, inotropic / vasodilator support, titration of dosing of medications to metabolic capabilities, hydrocortisone for absolute adrenal insufficiency, plasma exchange for complex coagulopathy, and immune modulation for acquired immune dysfunction syndromes. Presently, Dr. Carcillo is the two-time chair for the American College of Critical Care Medicine task force on Hemodynamic Support of Newborns and Children with Septic Shock, and the Principal Investigator for the National Institute of Child Health and Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network’s Critical Illness Stress-induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial. Dr. Carcillo is a great fan of the splendid work performed by the United Kingdom investigators in the recognition and management of pediatric sepsis and septic shock, and he considers it a high honor to speak with you today. 

Prof Carcillo will be presenting the keynote lecture on Current management of sepsis and insights into future therapies, read the abstract here.

Dr Kathryn Maitland Dr Kathryn Maitland has spent most of the last two decades as a clinical research scientist specialising in international child health. The greater part of this has been spent in the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya where she has lead a research group whose major research portfolio includes severe malaria, bacterial sepsis and severe malnutrition. Her work has focussed upon understanding the pathophysiology of severe illness and identifying interventions, aiming to reduce the high mortality rates in these conditions. Key achievements include: establishing through detailed pathophysiological studies that hypovolaemia and myocardial dysfunction are common complications of severe malaria; providing a comprehensive description of the common electrolyte derangements in severe malaria; confirming that volume expansion as pre-transfusion management is safe and potentially lifesaving in symptomatic severe malarial anaemia; and demonstrating, in four clinical trials that fluid resuscitation reduces mortality and in neurological presentations of severe malaria human albumin solution results in significantly lower mortality over saline. Together these trials have resulted in a MRC award of the largest trial of critically children ever undertaken in Africa (FEAST trial: http://www.feast-trial.org) and has led to the development of new guidelines for management of severe malaria in children in the UK. The FEAST trial studies both severe malaria and sepsis is likely to lead to major changes in health policy in children with severe illness in sub-Saharan Africa.

Dr Maitland is a member of the WHO Special Advisory Committee on severe malnutrition and her research programme in Kilifi has contributed to improving the evidence-base for international treatment guidelines. Her group has: identified common factors associated with poor outcome and criteria for identifying high risk patients; completed physiological studies examining cardiac output; and conducted antimicrobial pharmacokinetic studies and a Phase II clinical trial examining the best fluid resuscitation strategies.

Dr Maitland will be presenting Fluid management of severely ill children: issues in industrialised and developing countries, read the abstract here.

Dr Matthew Scarborough Matthew was born in Blantyre, Malawi and returned as an elective student during his medical training. During this period, he was involved in the care of a patient with pneumococcal meningitis whose condition deteriorated despite the early administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy. This single patient prompted an interest in the potential use of adjunctive steroid therapy and subsequently the development of a randomised controlled trial of dexamethasone. The trial was funded by the MRF and has led on to several other investigations and collaborations. Blantyre currently hosts meningitis research programmes in both the adult and paediatric wards and, together with the Wellcome Trust Laboratories, provides a valuable resource for further studies.

Matthew currently works in infectious diseases at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford and continues to enjoy close ties with the MRF and with Malawi.

Dr Scarborough will be presenting Diagnosis, treatment and adjunctive therapy for bacterial meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, read the abstract here.

Dr James Stuart Dr James Stuart currently works as an independent consultant epidemiologist based in France. He has studied the epidemiology and control of meningococcal disease for 25 years in the UK, other European countries, Africa and Asia. He recently led a consortium under contract to the European Centre for Disease Control (ECDC) to produce evidence based guidance for public health management of cases and contacts of meningococcal disease.

Dr Stuart will be presenting Evidence for public health management of invasive meningococcal disease session on day one

Dr Marc LaForce Dr LaForce joined the Meningitis Vaccine Project as Director in August 2001. He has a long and distinguished career in disease prevention, vaccinology, and international health. The Meningitis Vaccine Project is a partnership between WHO and PATH aimed at developing, testing, licensing and introducing conjugate meningococcal vaccines in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Dr LaForce earned his Doctor of Medicine degree from Seton Hall College of Medicine and Dentistry in Jersey City, N.J. He completed his internal medicine and infectious disease training on the Harvard Service at Boston City Hospital. After serving as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer in the Meningitis and Special Pathogen units at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention he joined the faculty at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. He is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Before joining PATH he was Physician-in-Chief at the Genesee Hospital and Professor of Medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in Rochester, NY.

He has published over 170 papers and book chapters chiefly in the areas of pulmonary defence mechanisms, clinical infectious diseases, epidemiology and vaccinology.

Dr LaForce will be presenting Meningitis Vaccine Project - update in trial results, read the abstract here.

Prof Ray Borrow

Prof Ray Borrow is Head of the Vaccine Evaluation Unit at the Health Protection Agency North West, Manchester, UK, where he is responsible for the evaluation of serological responses to various bacterial and viral vaccines with a special interest in meningococcal and pneumococcal vaccines. He gained his PhD in 1994 and his MRCPath in 2003. His scientific findings resulted in over 150 peer reviewed published papers. He serves as a member of the DoH Joint Committee of Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) and frequently advises WHO and companies on both meningococcal and pneumococcal vaccines. He sits on the medical-scientific advisory panel for the Meningitis Trust, Meningitis Research Foundation and Meningitis UK.

Prof Borrow will be jointly chairing the Future prevention of MenB session on day two.

Dr Amanda Cohn is a medical epidemiologist at the Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA. She is the CDC lead for domestic meningococcal disease. She serves as CDC lead of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meningococcal vaccine working group and she has written multiple updates to the meningococcal conjugate vaccine recommendations in the United States.

Dr Cohn is responsible for US surveillance for Neisseria meningiditis and Haemophilus influenzae. She leads CDC efforts to evaluation vaccine effectiveness of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) as well as pertussis booster vaccines (Tdap) and an evaluation of nH1N1 vaccine effectiveness on influenza hospitalisations. She is the recipient of the CDC 2009 Iain Hardy Memorial Award for outstanding contributions to vaccine-preventable diseases.

Dr Cohn attended Emory School of Medicine in Atlanta, GA and completed an internship and residency in paediatrics at Boston Medical Center and Boston Children's Hospital. She completed the Epidemic Intelligence Officer training program in applied epidemiology at CDC prior to her current position.

Dr Cohn will be presenting Global prospects for prevention of MenACWY, including the US experience, read the abstract here.

Prof Rino RappuoliDr Rino Rappuoli is Global Head of Vaccines Research for Novartis Vaccines. Previously, he was Chief Scientific Officer and Vice President, Vaccines Research, Chiron Corporation.

Rino joined IRIS, the Chiron S.p.A. Research Institute in 1992 and obtained various leadership positions in vaccine discovery and research within the company. Prior to that, he was a Head of the Laboratory of Bacterial Vaccines at the Scalvo Research Center and a visiting scientist at Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA) and the Rockefeller Institute (New York, NY).

Rino was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) and was awarded the Gold Medal by the Italian President for contributions to public healthcare in 2005. He is the author of 321 original papers in peer-reviewed journals and has served as reviewer for numerous scientific publications.

Rino obtained his doctoral degree in Biological Sciences at the University of Siena, delivering his experimental thesis on the use of NMR in biological systems.

Rino has recently been awarded the Albert Sabin Gold Medal 2009 in recognition of his work in the field of vaccine discoveries.

Dr Rappuoli will be on the panel for the Future prevention of MenB debate, read the abstract here

Dr Annaliesa Anderson Annaliesa S Anderson is Director of Early Phase Bacterial Programs within the Vaccines Research and Development Division at Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. She received her PhD in 1995 from the University of Warwick in the field of Biological Sciences with a CASE award from ICI (Astra Zeneca). After completing 2 Postdoctoral fellowships she joined Merck Research Laboratories in 1998 where her initial responsibility was to initiate a high throughput actinomycete genetic engineering program to provide novel compounds for drug discovery screening programs. This work resulted in several discoveries related to actinomycete/Gram positive genetics and the generation of novel macrolide compounds. During this time she also served as an Ad Hoc reviewer for the National Institute for Health. In 2000 she joined the vaccines group where she focused on a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine discovery program that is currently in late stage development. She was the preclinical lead through to phase 2 and was also responsible for the clinical assay development for this program. In 2005 her responsibilities expanded to include anti-infective monoclonal antibody discovery and in 2007 she became Head of Microbial Vaccines Research at Merck Research Laboratories with responsibility for the preclinical microbial vaccine portfolio. In 2007 she joined Wyeth as the Director of Early Phase Bacterial Programs within the Vaccines Research and Development Division at Wyeth Pharmaceuticals where she is focused on the design and early development of novel vaccines for the prevention of bacterial infections.

Dr Anderson will be on the panel for the Future prevention of MenB debate, read the abstract here

Dr Jan PoolmanDr Jan Poolman was awarded a Master of Science degree in Chemistry by the University of Amsterdam in 1975 where he later became a Doctor of Medicine in 1981 and Associate Professor of Bacteriology. The title of his doctoral thesis was “The Surface Structure of Neisseria meningitidis”. In 1985, he joined the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in the Netherlands as Head of the Department for Bacterial Vaccine Development. Throughout this time, he directed research into and published papers relating to the development of conjugate vaccines for the prevention of Hib, pneumococcal and meningococcal infectious diseases and was coordinating the development of a group B meningococcal vaccine. In 1997, Dr Poolman joined SmithKline Beecham Biologicals (now GSK Bio) at Rixensart, Belgium as Associate Director, Head of Preclinical Bacteriology-Immunology and was employed to develop diphtheria/pertussis/Hib combinations and meningococcal and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. In 2000, he became Director of GSK’s Bacterial Vaccine Programme and in 2005 he accepted his current role as Vice-President of Research and Development into Bacterial Vaccines. Areas of vaccine research interests include group B meningococci, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus. He’s the author and co-author of more than 200 scientific publications.

Dr Poolman will be on the panel for the Future prevention of MenB debate, read the abstract here

Dr Dorian KennedyDorian Kennedy is a career Civil Servant who worked in the Food Standards Agency on a range of food safety, quality and nutrition issues before joining the Department of Health in 2002 to work on Immunisation. He has been heavily involved in HPV and pneumococcal vaccines being added to the routine immunisation programmes in the UK. In addition to immunisation, he was responsible for co-ordinating the pandemic flu preparedness work in the Department from 2004 – 2006. Since 2007, he has been Head of Immunisation Branch in the Department of Health.

Dr Kennedy will be on the panel for the Future prevention of MenB debate, read the abstract here

Dr Paul Kasier Paul B. Keiser, MD, is a native of Virginia, USA. He attended Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis followed by residency in internal medicine at Georgetown University and fellowship in infectious disease at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. During his time at the NIH, Paul studied mechanisms of protective immunity in lymphatic filariasis and Strongyloides infections.

Following his transfer into the Army and tours of duty as a flight surgeon in Germany and Afghanistan, Paul came to the Department of Bacterial and Rickettsial Diseases at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) in 2006. In addition to work on diagnostic assays for trauma-related infections, he has been principal investigator, sub-investigator and medical monitor on numerous vaccine trials. In 2008 he was named Research Coordinator for Meningococcal Vaccines for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and Chief of the Meningococcal Vaccines Department at WRAIR.

Dr Keiser will be on the panel for the Future prevention of MenB debate, read the abstract here

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