Protection for pilgrims and travellers from the UK
Meningococcal infection can cause meningitis, septicaemia or both. Five strains of meningococcal bacteria (A, B, C, W135 and Y) cause most cases. Although it occurs in all countries, it is much more common in certain areas. There are epidemics in the ‘meningitis belt’ of sub-Saharan Africa, usually due to meningococcal A or W135 bacteria, and from time to time there are outbreaks in other countries.
Large epidemics of meningococcal disease have been linked to the Hajj pilgrimage, at first due to A-strain and then in 2000/2001 to W135
. Cases of meningococcal disease also occurred world-wide after pilgrims returned to their own countries
Because of these epidemics, quadrivalent ACWY vaccination has been a compulsory entry requirement into Saudi Arabia for pilgrims on Hajj and Umrah, and for other travellers in Hajj season since 2002. It protects against meningitis and septicaemia caused by four different strains: A, C, W135 and Y. Vaccination is also recommended for travel to sub-Saharan Africa and certain other countries, especially if travellers will be living or working with local people or visiting during an outbreak. An up-to-date list of countries with potential risk can be obtained from www.nathnac.org.
Pilgrims on Hajj or Umrah are required to present a certificate of vaccination with ACWY, issued at least 10 days, but not more than 3 years before arrival. This also applies to seasonal workers in Hajj areas.
What vaccines are available?
There are now two ACWY vaccines available: Menveo® and Nimenrix®. In children less than 1 year of age, Menveo® should be used. Those over 1 year of age should receive a single dose of either Nimenrix® or Menveo®. Babies under one year of age, should receive two doses of Menveo® one month apart for protection
The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) can offer more information about vaccination and pilgrimage to Hajj. Visit them at http://www.mcb.org.uk/health-and-travel-advice-for-hajj-pilgrims/
Safety and acceptability
The ingredients of both conjugate vaccines have been in use for many years. Although mild side effects are fairly common, including pain where the vaccine was injected, and sometimes headache, or nausea, these reactions are similar to the reactions caused by routine vaccines.
Menveo® has been certified as Halal by the Indonesian Council of Ulama and the Islamic Services of America. Nimenrix® has been certified as Halal by the Halal Food Council of Europe.
Know the symptoms
Remember there are strains of meningitis that cannot be prevented, so it is important to know the symptoms
to look out for, because early treatment saves lives.
Where can I go for further information and support?
Meningitis Research Foundation has a free information service called MeningitisWise, operating 365 days a year.
We provide audio and written information about symptoms and about quadrivalent vaccine for pilgrims on Hajj in many languages including Arabic, Bengali (Sylheti), Gujarati, Punjabi, Somali, Turkish and Urdu here
An interpretation service in 150 languages is available through the helpline on Freefone
080 8800 3344.
Can you catch meningitis and septicaemia from other travellers onthe same aeroplane, ship, bus, or train or in the same hotel or resort?
Getting meningitis and septicaemia from this sort of contact isunlikely. While at least 10% of the people you meet every day carrymeningococcal bacteria in the back of their nose and throat, usually,this causes no harm. It is never possible to be completely certain thatbacteria will not be transmitted, but the risk in these settings notgenerally any higher than in every day situations where contact withother people is neither intimate nor prolonged.
Can you catch meningitis and septicaemia from recycled air in air-conditioning systems?
Meningococcal bacteria are very fragile and can only live outsidethe body for a few moments. It is therefore not an airborne disease,and cannot linger in the air or on objects.References
- Lingappa, J.R., et al., Serogroup W-135 meningococcal disease during the Hajj, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis, 2003. 9(6): p. 665-71.
- Hahne, S.J., et al., W135 meningococcal disease in England and Wales associated with Hajj 2000 and 2001. Lancet, 2002. 359(9306): p. 582-3.
- 'Green Book'. Department of Health. Immunisation against infectious diseases. Chapter 22: Meningococcal. Updated April 2011. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthprotection/Immunisation/Greenbook/DH_4097254.
Holding your child, not knowing whether they will wake up or not.
Conjugate vaccines are made by linking part of the bacteria’s sugar coat to a protein. This allows the immune system to recognise and attack bacteria with the same sugar coat when they enter the body. Conjugate vaccines are effective in babies as young as 2 months of age and trigger a long-lasting immune response.